Handbook of Advanced Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry Techniques
Chapter 7 - Introduction to Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography - Theory and Practice
by Dwight R. Stoll

Figure 7-27. Effect of interface conditions on the ability to both resolve and detect trace-level degradants coeluting with the main peak (naproxen) in the first dimension of a high quality LC x LC separation of photodegraded naproxen. The one-dimensional (1D) separation is shown in Panel E. Panels A1-D1 are subsections of LC x LC separations focused on the region where naproxen and neighboring peaks elute. Panels A2-D2 show the two-dimensional chromatograms observed at the position indicated by the white dashed vertical line in Panel A1. Interface conditions were: (A1/A2) 80 mL injection of 1D effluent after 1:1 dilution with water; (B1/B2) 40 mL injection of undiluted 1D effluent; (C1/C2) 20 mL injection of undiluted 1D effluent; and (D1/D2) 7 mL injection of undiluted 1D effluent.

Reprinted with permission of Springer from Stoll, D.R., Talus, E.S., Harmes, D.C., Zhang, K., 2014. Evaluation of detection sensitivity in comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography separations of an active pharmaceutical ingredient and its degradants. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 407, 265-277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-014-8036-9.

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