Phase diagram of carbon dioxide. Solid (s), liquid (l), and gas state (g). Cp, critical point; Pc, critical pressure; Tc, critical temperature.
The number of scientific papers published with the focus on supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) within the time period 1962-2016. The search was made using the Scifinder database, the keywords “SFC” and “SFC-mass spectrometry (MS),” and all their respective synonyms discussed in Section 1, with the filtration of duplicate results. The bibliography search was made in November 2016.
Kinetic performance and normalized generated pressure drop as a function of linear velocity for 1.7 and 3.5 um particles in ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC). (A) van Deemter curves for high performance liquid chromatography with 3.5 um particles (blue dots (dark gray in print versions)), UHPLC with 1.7 um particles (red diamonds (gray in print versions)), supercritical fluid chromatography with 3.5 um particles (purple squares (black in print versions)), and UHPSFC with 1.7 um particles (green triangles (light gray in print versions)). (B) Corresponding generated column pressure drops normalized to a 1 m column.
The influence of organic modifier type on ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) separations. Chromatograms show separations of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) ticagrelor [blue (gray in print versions) 1] and its three impurities (2, 3, 4) on a Torus Diol column (100 mm x 3.0 mm, 1.7 um), with gradient elution 5%-40% of organic modifier in 3 min, flow-rate 1.5 mL/min, temperature 40oC, backpressure regulator 2000 psi, UV detection at 225 nm. ACN, acetonitrile; EtOH, ethanol; MeOH, methanol.
Comparison of analysis with and without additives in a ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography method for the separation of vardenafil (API, peak 1) and its six impurities on a charged surface hybrid pentaflurophenyl (CSH PFP) column and for the separation of agomelatine (API, peak 4) and its six impurities on a bridged ethyl hybrid (BEH) column. Gradient elution of 5%-40% was performed with methanol as an organic modifier (A), with methanol + 10 mM ammonium formate (B), and with methanol + 10 mM ammonium acetate (C) in 3 min, flow-rate 1.5 mL/min, temperature 40oC, backpressure regulator 2000 psi, UV detection at 225 nm. NE, not eluted.
Plots of analyte retention versus temperature (A) and pressure (B) on a C18 stationary phase, at 2 mL/min with CO2/methanol (95:5) at 210 bar (A) and CO2/methanol (97:3) at 40oC (B).
Reproduced from Zou, W., Dorsey, J.G., Chester, T.L., 2000. Modifier effects on column efficiency in packed-column supercritical fluid chromatography. Anal. Chem. 72, 3620-3626 with permission. Also see the reference for further details of experimental measurements.
Model of total MeOH amount entering the eletrospray ionization probe using a prebackpressure regulator splitter with the sheath pump interface as a function of the ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography mobile phase flow-rate (x-axis) and sheath pump flow-rate (y axis) for two different mobile phase CO2/methanol compositions. (A) composition 95:5, (B) 80:20 and three different fixed back-pressures: 120 bar (A1, B1), 150 bar (A2, B2), and 180 bar (A3, B3). MeOH, methanol; MS, mass spectrometry; SFC, supercritical fluid chromatography.
The involvement of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) technology in various application and research fields. The search was made using the Scifinder database using the keyword “SFC” with filtration of duplicate results. November 2016.
Ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatographyemass spectrometry chromatograms of the separation of eight isomers of vitamin E. (A) High-resolution method. (B) High-speed method.
The Handbook of Advanced Chromatography /Mass Spectrometry Techniques is a compendium of new and advanced analytical techniques that have been developed in recent years for analysis of all types of molecules in a variety of complex matrices, from foods to fuel to pharmaceuticals and more. Focusing on areas that are becoming widely used or growing rapidly, this is a comprehensive volume that describes both theoretical and practical aspects of advanced methods for analysis. Written by authors who have published the foundational works in the field, the chapters have an emphasis on lipids, but reach a broader audience by including advanced analytical techniques applied to a variety of fields.
Contains both practical and theoretical knowledge, providing core understanding for implementing modern chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques Presents chapters on the most popular and fastest-growing new techniques being implemented in diverse areas of research.
The Handbook is intended for upper level undergraduate students and graduate students, researchers, technicians, and scientists.It is also well suited for advanced analytical instrumentation students as well as for analysts seeking additional knowledge or a deeper understanding of familiar techniques.
No. of pages: 520
Copyright: © Academic Press and AOCS Press 2017
Published: September 11th 2017
eBook ISBN: 9780128117330
Paperback ISBN: 9780128117323