Chapter 8 - Introduction - Page 287

     The analysis of real-world samples, e.g., biological, food, and environmental, poses a high demand for “conventional” one-dimensional liquid chromatography (1D-LC) methods enabling compound identification and quantification. However, a single column does not often have sufficient separation power for the baseline separation of all components in complex samples and the extent of peak overlap is enhanced as the number of compounds increases. The development of comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (LC x LC) has been relatively slow until the last two decades, even though the advantages of the technique were already described in the late 1970s and early 1980s (Karger et al., 1973; Erni and Frei, 1978; Giddings, 1984). In the 1990s the application of LC  LC was limited to proteomic applications, and only afterward the utility of this technique in the separation of a variety of other complex mixtures has been demonstrated. The general motivation which lies ahead of this research area is linked to its potential for substantially more resolving (separating) power in comparison with the 1D-LC counterpart.
     The most general set-up of an LC x LC system consists of two pumps, two columns, injector, interface, and detector. The interface is, in general, a high-pressure 2-position switching valve, and this device is often referred to as modulator or sampling device. The suitability of any LC separation system for resolving complex samples can be expressed by theoretical peak capacity, nc, which determines the maximum number of peaks that can be separated side by side, into the separation space at a desired degree of resolution e.g., RS = 1(nc = t/w). The separation time can be specified as the retention time interval DtR = tR, Z x tR, 1, between the first (1) and the last (z) sample peaks, while w can be estimated from the average bandwidth, wav.

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Handbook of Advanced Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry Techniques - Chapter 8 Figure 1

Figure 8.1

Contour plot (lambda = 450 nm) of the NP-LC x UHP-RP-LC PDA analysis of carotenoids in saponified red mamey. NP-LC, normal-phase liquid chromatography; PDA, photodiode array; RP-LC, reversed-phase liquid chromatography; UHP, ultrahigh pressure.

Reprinted with Permission from Springer: Cacciola, F., Giuffrida, D., Utczas, M., Mangraviti, D., Dugo, P., Menchaca, D., Murillo, E., Mondello, L., 2016b. Application of comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography for carotenoid analysis in red mamey (Pouteria sapote) fruit. Food Anal. Methods 9, 2335-2341.

Handbook of Advanced Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry Techniques - Chapter 8 Figure 2

Figure 8.2

(A) Contour plot of comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) silver ion x RPLC separation of peanut oil. (B) A slice of expanded raw chromatogram of the comprehensive 2D liquid chromatography analysis of peanut oil. Triacylglycerols were denoted by the three fatty acids linked to the glycerol backbone, and their positions did not represent the stereochemical positions. RPLC, reversed phase liquid chromatography.

Reprinted with Permission from Elsevier: Yang, Q., Shi, X., Gu, Q., Zhao, S., Zhao, Y., Shan, Y., Xu, G., 2012. On-line two dimensional liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry for the analysis of triacylglycerides in peanut oil and mouse tissue. J. Chromatogr. B 895-896, 48-55.

Handbook of Advanced Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry Techniques - Chapter 8 Figure 3

Figure 8.3

RP-LC x RP-LC contour plots of a sugarcane leaf extract by means of three different set-up, namely “full in fraction” (FIF, set-up 3A), “segmented in fraction” (SIF, set-up 3B), and “continuously shifting” (CS, set-up 3C) gradients. 1D, first dimension; RP-LC, reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

Reprinted with Permission from Springer: Leme, G.M., Cacciola, F., Donato, P., Cavalheiro, A.J., Dugo, P., Mondello, L., 2014. Continuous vs. segmented second-dimension system gradients for comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406, 4315-4324.

Handbook of Advanced Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry Techniques - Chapter 8 Figure 4

Figure 8.4

Contour plot for the online HILIC x RP-LC-UV-MS analysis of a 2013 Pinotage wine obtained at 500 nm. HILIC, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography; MS, mass spectrometry; RP-LC, reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

Reproduced with permission from ACS. Reprinted with Permission from Springer: Willemse, C.M., Stander, M.A., Vestner, J., Tredoux, A.G.J., de Villiers, A., 2015. Comprehensive two dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) x reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (RP-LC-UV-MS) analysis of anthocyanins and derived pigments in red wine. Anal. Chem. 87, 12006-12015.

Overview of the Contents:

The Handbook of Advanced Chromatography /Mass Spectrometry Techniques is a compendium of new and advanced analytical techniques that have been developed in recent years for analysis of all types of molecules in a variety of complex matrices, from foods to fuel to pharmaceuticals and more. Focusing on areas that are becoming widely used or growing rapidly, this is a comprehensive volume that describes both theoretical and practical aspects of advanced methods for analysis. Written by authors who have published the foundational works in the field, the chapters have an emphasis on lipids, but reach a broader audience by including advanced analytical techniques applied to a variety of fields.

Handbook of Advanced Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry Techniques

Key Features

Contains both practical and theoretical knowledge, providing core understanding for implementing modern chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques Presents chapters on the most popular and fastest-growing new techniques being implemented in diverse areas of research.

Handbook of Advanced Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry Techniques

Table of Contents

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Handbook of Advanced Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry Techniques

Expected Readership

The Handbook is intended for upper level undergraduate students and graduate students, researchers, technicians, and scientists.It is also well suited for advanced analytical instrumentation students as well as for analysts seeking additional knowledge or a deeper understanding of familiar techniques.

Handbook of Advanced Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry Techniques

Book Details

No. of pages: 520
Copyright: © Academic Press and AOCS Press 2017
Published: September 11th 2017
eBook ISBN: 9780128117330
Paperback ISBN: 9780128117323